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Understanding Diabetes: Causes, Types, Symptoms, and Management

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Dr. Jameel - MBBS, MCPS (Family Med)

Dr. Jameel, a compassionate family physician, simplifies medical information through easy-to-understand blogs. His holistic approach promotes healthier living, and he's actively engaged in local health initiatives. Join him on your journey to better health.

Understanding diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which blood sugar levels remains high in the body. Increase in blood sugar levels is called hyperglycemia. Millions of people are affected by this condition worldwide. Diabetes can lead to various health complications, if not properly managed. In this comprehensive article, we will discuss the various aspects of diabetes mainly covering its causes, types, symptoms, and management strategies.

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes which is also known as Diabetes Mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. This occurs because of two reasons, either the body does not produce enough insulin (a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar) or because the cells do not respond effectively to insulin which is produced by body. Diabetes is a serious condition, which if not properly managed, can lead to multiple health problems, including heart disease, kidney failure, vision impairment, and neuropathy.

Types of Diabetes:

Diabetes is a complex and chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). There are several types of diabetes, each with its own causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches. In this article, we will mainly discuss the main types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational Diabetes, and other less common types.

  1. Type 1 Diabetes:
    • Pathophysiology: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Due to destruction of beta cells body cannot produce insulin.
    • Onset: Typically occurs in childhood or adolescence but can develop at any age.
    • Symptoms: Rapid onset of symptoms occurs in this type. Main symptoms are excessive thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes:
    • Pathophysiology: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, where cells do not respond effectively to insulin, and a relative insulin deficiency. Initially, the pancreas tries to produces more insulin for compensation, but over time, it cannot keep up.
    • Onset: Typically develops in adulthood, but due to rising obesity rates, it is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents.
    • Symptoms: May be mild or absent initially. Main symptoms in this type are excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow wound healing.
  3. Gestational Diabetes:
    • Pathophysiology: Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when hormonal changes lead to insulin resistance. The pancreas may not produce enough insulin to meet increased demand.
    • Onset: Typically diagnosed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
    • Symptoms: Often asymptomatic but may include excessive thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue.
  4. Other Less Common Types:
    • Monogenic Diabetes: Caused by mutations in a single gene and usually diagnosed in childhood. Examples include maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and neonatal diabetes.
    • Secondary Diabetes: Caused by other medical conditions, such as pancreatitis, hormonal disorders (Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly), medications (corticosteroids, antipsychotics), or organ transplant-related factors.
    • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA): Sometimes called “Type 1.5 diabetes,” LADA shares characteristics of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It often occurs in adults and progresses slowly.

Causes of Diabetes:

Diabetes is a complex medical condition which can occur due to many causes. Detailed knowledge of the causes of diabetes is very helpful in prevention, early diagnosis and effective management of the disease. Different causes of the main types of diabetes are:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes:
    • Autoimmune Reaction: The primary cause of Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune reaction. In individuals with a genetic predisposition, the immune system mistakenly targets and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
    • Genetic Susceptibility: Genetics play a significant role in Type 1 diabetes. Specific genetic markers and family history can increase the risk of developing the condition.
    • Environmental Triggers: While not fully understood, environmental factors such as viral infections (e.g., enteroviruses) may trigger the autoimmune response in susceptible individuals.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes:
    • Insulin Resistance: The central cause of Type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance. In this condition, the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin’s signals, making it difficult for glucose to enter the cells.
    • Genetic Factors: Genetics can contribute to insulin resistance and overall susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. Family history of diabetes can increase the risk.
    • Lifestyle Factors: Lifestyle choices, particularly diet and physical activity, play a significant role. Strong risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is obesity. Sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits contribute to weight gain and insulin resistance.
    • Age: Increase in age increases risk of Type 2 diabetes especially after 45 years of age.
    • Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups, including African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, are at a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes.
  3. Gestational Diabetes:
    • Hormonal Changes during Pregnancy: Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy due to hormonal changes that lead to insulin resistance. In this case pancreas is unable to produce sufficient insulin in order to match the increased demand.
    •  Genetics and Obesity: Similar to Type 2 diabetes, genetics and obesity can increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
    • Age: Chances of development of gestational diabetes is more common in women over the age of 25.
  4. Other Less Common Types:
    • Monogenic Diabetes: Caused by mutations in a single gene, monogenic diabetes, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), is typically diagnosed in childhood.
    • Secondary Diabetes: Other medical conditions or factors can lead to secondary diabetes. This includes conditions like pancreatitis, hormonal disorders (Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly), certain medications (corticosteroids, antipsychotics), and organ transplant-related factors.
    • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA): LADA shows symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It often occurs in adults and progresses slowly.

Risk Factors for Diabetes:

Diabetes is a complex medical condition which can occur due to many risk factors. Detailed knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes is very helpful in prevention, early diagnosis and effective management of the disease. Different risk factors for diabetes are:

  1. Family History and Genetics:
    • Family History: If you have a family history of diabetes, particularly in first-degree relatives (parents or siblings), your risk of developing diabetes is higher. Genetic factors play a significant role in type 2 diabetes.
    • Genetic Predisposition: Certain genes can increase susceptibility to diabetes. However, genetics alone do not guarantee the development of diabetes; environmental factors and lifestyle choices also play a crucial role.
  2. Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmune Factors:
    • Type 1 diabetes is primarily an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
    • While genetics can play a role in susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not fully understood.
  3. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors:
    • Obesity: Excess body weight, particularly abdominal or visceral fat, is one of the most significant risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, where cells do not respond effectively to insulin.
    • Physical Inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity helps in improving insulin sensitivity and controlling blood sugar levels in the body.
    • Unhealthy Diet: Diets high in refined carbohydrates, sugars, saturated and trans fats, and low in fiber can contribute to obesity and insulin resistance.
    • Age: There is an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with age, especially after 45. However, due to rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in younger individuals.
    • Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
    • Gestational Diabetes: A history of gestational diabetes during pregnancy can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
  4. Prediabetes:
    • Prediabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
    • If left unaddressed, prediabetes can progress to type 2 diabetes.
  5. Other Medical Conditions:
    • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that increases the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in women.
    • Metabolic Syndrome: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions, including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance, which together increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  6. Medications and Medical History:
    • Certain medications, such as corticosteroids, antipsychotics, and statins, may increase the risk of diabetes.
    • A history of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol can also be associated with a higher risk of diabetes.
  7. Smoking:
    • Studies have shown that smoking is linked with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Smoking contribute to increase in insulin resistance and make body prone to other cardiovascular risk factors.
  8. Environmental Factors:
    • Exposure to environmental toxins, such as chemicals found in some pesticides and pollutants, may contribute to the development of diabetes.
  9. Stress:
    • Chronic stress can lead to unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as overeating or unhealthy eating, which can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  10. Sleep Disorders:
    • Conditions like sleep apnea, characterized by disrupted sleep patterns, are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Common Symptoms of Diabetes:

The symptoms of diabetes can vary depending on the type and stage of the condition. Here, we will discuss the most common symptoms associated with diabetes, particularly Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes:

Symptoms of diabetes
  1. Increased Thirst (Polydipsia):
    • One of the earliest and most common symptoms of diabetes is excessive thirst. People with diabetes may feel unusually thirsty and have a constant need to drink water.
  2. Frequent Urination (Polyuria):
    • Excess sugar in the bloodstream needs to be filtered by the kidneys, leading to increased urine production. Individuals with diabetes often experience frequent urination, especially at night (nocturia).
  3. Unexplained Weight Loss:
    • In Type 1 diabetes, the body cannot use glucose for energy due to a lack of insulin, so it begins breaking down fat and muscle tissue. This can result in unexplained and rapid weight loss, despite increased hunger and food intake.
  4. Increased Hunger (Polyphagia):
    • Elevated blood sugar levels can lead to persistent feelings of hunger. People with diabetes may find themselves eating more than usual.
  5. Fatigue and Weakness:
    • Diabetes-related fluctuations in blood sugar levels can lead to fatigue and weakness. When blood sugar levels are too high, cells may not receive enough energy.
  6. Blurred Vision:
    • High blood sugar levels can cause temporary changes in the shape of the eye’s lens, leading to blurred vision. This symptom is often reversible with proper diabetes management.
  7. Slow Wound Healing:
    • Diabetes can affect the body’s ability to heal wounds and infections. Body takes longer to heal cuts, sores, or bruises which subsequently increase the risk of complications.
  8. Tingling or Numbness (Neuropathy):
    • Elevated blood sugar levels can damage nerves over time, leading to symptoms such as tingling, numbness, or burning sensations, usually starting in the extremities.
  9. Recurrent Infections:
    • Diabetes can make the immune system weak which can increase the chances of getting infection. Frequent yeast infections (thrush) and urinary tract infections are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes.
  10. Dry Skin and Itching:
    • Dehydration, common in diabetes, can lead to dry skin and itching. It can also lead to skin problems, such as fungal infections and diabetic dermopathy.
  11. Increased Thirst and Hunger in Gestational Diabetes:
    • Pregnant women with gestational diabetes may experience increased thirst, hunger, and frequent urination. These symptoms often resolve after childbirth but require monitoring during pregnancy.
  12. Asymptomatic Diabetes:
    • Some individuals may have diabetes without noticeable symptoms. This is more common in Type 2 diabetes, where symptoms can develop gradually, leading to a delayed diagnosis.

It’s important to note that the severity and symptoms of the disease can vary from person to person. Moreover, not all individuals with diabetes will experience all of these symptoms.

Effects of Diabetes on Organ Systems:

Effects of diabetes on organ system
  1. Cardiovascular System:
    • Diabetes significantly increases the risk of heart disease, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.
    • Elevated blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and promote the development of atherosclerosis.
  2. Nervous System:
    • Diabetes can lead to neuropathy, which affects the nerves, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the extremities.
    • Autonomic neuropathy may disrupt digestion, blood pressure regulation, and sexual function.
  3. Kidneys:
    • Diabetes damage your kidneys which can lead to a kidney disease called diabetic nephropathy. It can lead to impaired kidney function. In cases of poorly controlled diabetes patients develop end-stage renal disease which requires dialysis or kidney transplantation.
  4. Eyes:
    • Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, leading to diabetic retinopathy, a common cause of blindness.
    • Regular eye exams are essential to detect and manage diabetic eye complications.
  5. Skin and Wound Healing:
    • High blood sugar levels can impair circulation and slow wound healing. Bacterial and fungal infections of skin are more common in diabetes.
  6. Gastrointestinal System:
    • Gastroparesis, a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly, can occur in diabetes, leading to symptoms like nausea and vomiting.
  7. Sexual Health:
    • Both men and women with diabetes may experience sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction in men and reduced libido in women.
  8. Foot Health:
    • Diabetes-related foot problems, including neuropathy and poor circulation, can lead to ulcers and, in severe cases, amputation.

Diagnosis of Diabetes:

The diagnosis of diabetes is typically based on specific criteria that involve blood sugar (glucose) measurements and clinical symptoms. The criteria for diagnosing diabetes have been established by medical organizations such as the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). These criteria help healthcare providers accurately identify and classify different types of diabetes. Here are the main criteria used for diagnosing diabetes:

  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test:
    • The FPG test measures blood sugar levels after an overnight fast (at least 8 hours without food or drink, except water).
    • Diagnostic Thresholds:
      • Normal: Fasting glucose level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).
      • Prediabetes (Impaired Fasting Glucose): Fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL.
      • Diabetes: Fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate occasions.
  2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT):
    • The OGTT requires an overnight fasting and then drinking a glucose solution. Blood sugar levels are measured before drinking the solution and at specific time intervals afterward (usually 2 hours).
    • Diagnostic Thresholds:
      • Normal: A value of 140 mg/dL or below in 2-hour glucose level.
      • Prediabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance): 2-hour glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL.
      • Diabetes: 2-hour glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher.
  3. Hemoglobin A1C (A1C) Test:
    • The A1C test provides an average of blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. It does not require fasting.
    • Diagnostic Thresholds:
      • Normal: A1C below 5.7%.
      • Prediabetes: A1C between 5.7% and 6.4%.
      • Diabetes: A1C of 6.5% or higher on two separate occasions.
  4. Random Blood Sugar Test:
    • This test measures blood sugar levels at any time, regardless of fasting. It is often used when symptoms of diabetes are present.
    • Diagnostic Thresholds:
      • Diabetes is diagnosed if the random blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL or higher, along with classic symptoms of diabetes like excessive thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.
  5. Glycated Albumin (GA) Test and Fructosamine Test:
    • These tests provide an alternative way to assess average blood sugar levels over a shorter period (1-2 weeks) and are sometimes used in specific clinical situations.
  6. Autoantibody Testing (Type 1 Diabetes):
    • For diagnosing Type 1 diabetes, tests may include the measurement of specific autoantibodies like GAD65 antibodies and IA-2 antibodies, which are associated with autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Diagnosis of diabetes is mainly done by conducting more than one blood sugar test at various intervals. Additionally, in some cases, healthcare providers also consider other factors like clinical symptoms, medical history, and risk factors before making a diagnosis.

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels remain higher than normal but not as high that it falls into category of diabetes. It is a first stage in the development of type 2 diabetes one can prevent or delay the development of full blown type 2 diabetes in this stage by following the preventive measures.

Diagnosis of Prediabetes:

Prediabetes is diagnosed through blood tests that measure blood sugar levels. The primary tests used for diagnosis include:

  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test: An FPG test measures blood sugar levels after an overnight fast. Prediabetes is diagnosed if the fasting glucose level is between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).
  2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): The OGTT involves fasting overnight and then drinking a glucose solution. Blood sugar levels are measured before drinking the glucose solution and then 2 hours after drinking the solution. Prediabetes is diagnosed if the 2-hour glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL.
  3. Hemoglobin A1C (A1C) Test: An A1C test provides an average of blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. Prediabetes is diagnosed if the A1C level is between 5.7% and 6.4%.

Target Parameters for Management of Diabetes:

The guidelines for diabetes management are primarily set by organizations like the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Keep in mind that guidelines on diabetes are constantly may have evolving, so it’s important to consult the most recent recommendations from reputable sources.

Blood Sugar Targets:

  • Fasting Blood Sugar: The ADA recommends a target range of 80-130 mg/dL (4.4-7.2 mmol/L) before meals.
  • Post-Meal Blood Sugar (2 hours after eating): A target of less than 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L).

A1C Levels:

  • The ADA advises an A1C target of less than 7% for most adults with diabetes.
  • Individualized targets may be set, especially for elderly individuals or those with a history of severe hypoglycemia or limited life expectancy.
Blood pressure in diabetes

Blood Pressure and Cholesterol:

  • Blood pressure control is crucial. The ADA recommends a target blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg.
  • Cholesterol levels should be managed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Latest Guidelines on Diabetes Treatment:

Treatment guidelines for diabetes were primarily based on recommendations from organizations such as the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). While these guidelines may have evolved, here are some general principles:

Latest treatment guidelines of diabetes

A. Lifestyle Modifications:

Lifestyle modifications plays a vital role in prevention and treatment of diabetes. Life style modifications vary from person to person. Some of the risk factors like genetics, age, ethnicity are not controllable but lifestyle modifications can help in reducing controllable risk factors which will subsequently results in prevention or better management of the disease. Preventive measures for diabetes are:

  1. Maintain a Healthy Weight:
    • One of the most important steps in preventing type 2 diabetes is achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
    • Excess body fat, especially around the abdomen (visceral fat), is a significant risk factor for diabetes.
    • Diabetic individuals should aim for gradual and sustainable weight loss by taking a balanced diet and doing daily physical activity.
  2. Adopt a Balanced Diet:
    • Balanced diet includes fruits, green vegetables, whole grains, diets rich in lean proteins, and healthy fats.
    • Focus on foods with a low glycemic index (GI), which have a slower impact on blood sugar levels.
    • Limit the intake of sugary beverages, highly processed foods, and foods high in saturated and trans fats.
  3. Control Portion Sizes:
    • Take care of your daily calories intake. This can be done by controlling the portion size.
    • Consider using smaller plates and utensils to help with portion control.
  4. Choose Healthy Carbohydrates:
    • Opt for complex carbohydrates like whole grains (e.g., brown rice, whole wheat bread), legumes, and vegetables.
    • Limit refined carbohydrates and sugary snacks.
  5. Fiber-Rich Foods:
    • Fiber helps stabilize blood sugar levels. Include foods like oats, beans, and vegetables in your diet.
  6. Lean Protein Sources:
    • Lean proteins includes like chicken without skin, grilled fish, tofu, and legumes.
    • Decrease intake of red meat and processed meats.
  7. Healthy Fats:
    • Choose heart-healthy fats such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts.
    • Decrease intake of saturated and trans fats which are present in fried and processed foods.
  8. Regular Meals and Snacks:
    • In order to regulate blood sugar levels, you should take consistent meals.
    • Healthy snacks can help to prevent your blood sugar becoming very high or low.
  9. Hydration:
    • Drink plenty of water, and limit sugary and high-calorie beverages.
  10. Consult a Registered Dietitian:
    • Consider working with a registered dietitian who specializes in diabetes management to create a personalized meal plan.
  1. Regular Physical Activity:
    • Physical activity should be done daily to improve insulin sensitivity which will be helpful in controlling blood sugar levels.
    • Doing 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise weekly is recommended. It includes brisk walking, swimming, cycling etc
    • Include strength training exercises in your physical activity routine in order to build muscle and boost metabolism.
  2. Lose Excess Weight:
    • If overweight or obese, losing even a modest amount of weight (5-10% of body weight) can significantly reduce the risk of diabetes.
  3. Monitor Blood Sugar Levels:
    • If you have prediabetes or other risk factors, consider regular blood sugar monitoring to track changes and take preventive action.
    • Keep an eye on your fasting blood sugar and A1C levels.
  4. Manage Stress:
    • Chronic stress can contribute to insulin resistance. Techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or yoga can help in reducing stress.
  5. Adequate Sleep:
    • Aim for 7-8 hours of quality sleep per night, as poor sleep patterns can affect blood sugar control.
  6. Limit Alcohol Intake:
    • If you choose to consume alcohol, do so in moderation. Reducing alcohol intake can help in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  7. Quit Smoking:
    • Smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Quitting smoking is a significant step toward prevention.
  8. Regular Health Check-Ups:
    • Schedule regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your overall health, including blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and kidney function.
  9. Diabetes Education:
    • Consider participating in diabetes prevention programs or working with a certified diabetes educator for guidance and support.
  10. Vaccinations:
    • Ensure you’re up to date on vaccinations, as certain infections, such as influenza, can affect blood sugar control.
  11. Genetic Counseling:
    • If you have a family history of diabetes, consider genetic counseling to assess your risk and develop a personalized prevention plan.

B. Medical Treatment for Diabetes:

For the most up-to-date treatment guidelines and information on the effects of diabetes on organ systems, consult your healthcare provider or refer to reputable sources such as the ADA, EASD, or IDF websites. A brief overview of the treatments available in this regard are as under:

  1. Oral Medications:
  • Metformin:

Metformin remains the first-line oral medication for type 2 diabetes. Metformin acts in two ways for reducing the blood sugar levels. Firstly, it decreases the production of glucose by liver and it also helps in improving insulin sensitivity in muscle cells.

  • SGLT-2 Inhibitors:

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a newer class of drugs that lower blood sugar by promoting the excretion of excess glucose in the urine. Examples include empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin.

  • GLP-1 Receptor Agonists:

 Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists stimulate insulin secretion, slow down gastric emptying, and reduce appetite. Examples include liraglutide, dulaglutide, and semaglutide.

  • DPP-4 Inhibitors:

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase the levels of incretin hormones, which stimulate insulin release and inhibit glucagon release. Examples include sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin.

  • Other Oral Medications:

 Depending on individual needs, healthcare providers may prescribe other oral medications, such as sulfonylureas or thiazolidinediones.

2. Insulin Therapy:

For people with type 1 diabetes and some with type 2 diabetes, insulin therapy is necessary. Administration of insulin can be done through injections, insulin pens, or insulin pumps.

There are various types of insulin each type has different onset and duration of action. These types are opted as per patients’ blood glucose levels.

Intensive insulin therapy is recommended to achieve tight blood sugar control. It includes multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

3. Combination Therapy:

Combining different classes of medications, such as metformin with an SGLT-2 inhibitor or GLP-1 receptor agonist, can be effective in achieving better blood sugar control.

4. Bariatric Surgery:

In some cases of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, bariatric (weight loss) surgery may be considered. Procedures like gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy can lead to significant weight loss and diabetes remission in some individuals.

5. New and Emerging Therapies:

Ongoing research is continually bringing new diabetes medications and treatments for the patients. This includes potential breakthroughs in beta-cell regeneration and novel drug delivery methods.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, diabetes is a complex disease and its management should be done by multifactorial approach. The most recent recommendations mainly focus on changes in lifestyle as the basis of diabetes treatment. It includes an appropriate diet and daily physical activity. Blood sugar control can be successfully achieved with the help of medications, insulin therapy, and advanced treatments. Early diagnosis, specified treatment and regular monitoring of your blood sugar levels are the main factors in effective management of diabetes. This will help in reducing the complications associated with this disease.

Disclaimer:

Content on this site is written with thorough research and keeping in mind the latest guidelines. However, no content on this site should substitute professional consultation.

Picture of Dr. Jameel

Dr. Jameel

Dr Jameel is a practicing family physician. He writes easy to understand medical blogs to create health awareness and help people to live a healthier life.

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